Hypothermia is treated by preventing further heat being lost and by gently warming the patient.
You should seek immediate medical attention if you suspect someone has hypothermia as it can be life threatening.
Treating mild or moderate hypothermia
If you’re waiting for medical treatment to arrive, the advice below will help prevent further heat loss.
- Move the person indoors or somewhere warm as soon as possible.
- Once the person is in a warm environment, carefully remove any wet clothing and dry them.
- Wrap them in warm blankets, towels, or coats (whatever you have available), protecting their head and torso first.
- Encourage the person to shiver if they’re capable of doing so.
- If possible, give the person warm drinks (not alcohol) or high-energy foods, such as chocolate, to help warm them up. But only do this if they can swallow normally –ask them to cough to see if they can swallow.
- Once the person’s body temperature has increased, keep them warm and dry.
It’s important to handle a person with hypothermia gently and carefully.
Things to avoid
There are certain things you shouldn’t do when helping someone with hypothermia because it may make the condition worse:
- don’t put the cold person into a hot bath
- don’t massage their limbs
- don’t use heating lamps
- don’t give them alcohol to drink
Trying to warm someone up yourself with hot water, massages, heat pads and heat lamps can cause the blood vessels in the arms and legs to open up too quickly.
If this happens, it can lead to a dramatic fall in blood pressure to the vital organs such as the brain, heart, lungs and kidneys, potentially resulting in cardiac arrest and death.
If someone you know has been exposed to the cold and they’re distressed or confused, they have slow, shallow breathing or they’re unconscious, they may have severe hypothermia. Their skin may look healthy but feel cold. Babies may also be limp, unusually quiet and refuse to feed.
Cases of severe hypothermia require urgent medical treatment in hospital. You should call 999 to request an ambulance if you suspect someone has severe hypothermia.
As the body temperature drops, shivering will stop completely. The heart rate will slow and a person will gradually lose consciousness. They won’t appear to have a pulse or be breathing. If you know how to do it, CPR should be given while you wait for help to arrive.