EDC: Every Day Carry

I want to take this opportunity to discuss the topic of “Every Day Carry”. For me my EDC is probably the most important thing I have, for the simple reason it’s the one piece of kit I carry everywhere (well almost everywhere) and as such will be the first thing to hand in the event of an emergency however big or small.
My Every Day Carry has taken many sizes and shapes over the years starting as a shoulder bag, then be reduced down to a small pouch before finally upgrading to a small backpack, and i’m sure it will continue to evolve as my life and daily requirements change and therefore like many, I consider it a work in progress that will likely never be finished.

For those of you that carry an EDC already this may not be anything new, however for those you that don’t my hope is that it will give you some food for thought. You may work in an office and keep your GHB in the car and want something smaller to hand throughout the day, you may be a driver and have a GHB in boot and therefore don’t see the need in another pack.

The first point I want to make is that this is NOT a Bug Out Bag or a Get Home Bag, it is simply a bag that is designed to make my life easier on a day to day basis whether that be a run of the mill Monday or an emergency! And in the event of an emergency get me to one of my other bags.

An EDC as the title suggests is simply your Every Day Carry, a selection of items which you have on your person everyday, this could be as simple as a mobile phone, keys and wallet, or it could be a bag of selected gear if you are happy to carry it. The point is it really depends on your individual wants and requirements.

I’m going to break my EDC up into a number areas so you can see exactly what I carry on myself as standard.

KEYS: Assorted keys, mini pry bar with integrated bottle/can opener, seatbelt cutter, phillips and flathead screwdrivers, peanut lighters, Spyderco Grasshopper Knife (UK Legal Folder), Peanut cash stash, LED Lenser K2 mini torch, paracord lanyard, Carabiner.

MOBILE PHONE: Internet, downloaded survival books and documents.

WALLET: Fresnel lense, credit card survival tool, UKSN coin, water purification tablets, storm matches, plasters.

2 x Paracord Bracelets (on my wrist), 1 with an integrated ferro rod, whistle and compass.

BAG (5.11 Rush 12) See below for contents.
CARRY STRAP – Attached paracord bracelet.
5.11 DUMP POUCH – Folded and empty.
MOLLE SIDE POUCH – Basic first aid supplies (plasters, bandages, antiseptic, alcohol wipes etc), paracetamol, Ibuprofen, heartburn tablets, hayfever tablets, dental floss, sewing kit.
LARGE FRONT POCKET – Sawyer Mini, wind up radio, pocket binoculars, Bushnell Backtrack, all weather note pad, sharpie, pen, deck of playing cards, 2x LED torches, snack bars, water purification tablets, storm matches, portable charger for phone and other USB devices.
SMALL FRONT POCKET – Farb criminal identifier spray, charger cable, hygiene wipes, chapstick, vaseline, hot sauce, spare car key, gum.
BACK PANEL POCKET – Beanie hat, shemagh, poncho, gloves
MAIN COMPARTMENT – bottle of water, umbrella, admin pouch with – eating tool, screwdriver pen and multiple attachments inc alan keys, pen torch, multi-tool, CRKT Edgie knife (UK legal folder), duck tape, paracord superglue, small fire kit, tin foil, tactical pen.

With the exception of the admin pouch small bottle of water and small brolly my main compartment is empty, which allows me to store my lunchbox, jacket or even boots if needed, its not heavy and the bag itself is quite small.

Of course you dont have to have all of the above, or you could even add more if you want, your EDC is about making your everyday life easier, most of the above has been added by me following instances where I needed something and didnt have it…. now I do, and my bag now feels like an extension of me No doubt over the coming years I will remove and add bits and pieces but for right now its perfect for my needs. I hope this has given you some ideas to consider and as always, any questions just ask.



Triage, mass casualty management

Triage is an intial assessment and sorting of casualties based on medical need and likely response to treatment.

In a multiple-casualty situation, triage is essential to effectively sort casualties and prioritise their order of treatment to ensure that the greatest good can be done for as many casualties as possible. Its not fun and can be traumatic but is needed to save as mant people as possible.

mass-casualty-mockupsThe principles of assessment can be used to determine the degree of urgency in the management of most casualties. Triage should be prioritised over treatment and only the following procedures should be carried out while assessing casualties:

  • ensure that the airway is open
  • control major bleeding

Triage is essential for managing multiple casualty events as it:

  • prioritises treatment to use available resources as efficiently as possible
  • ensures that care is focused on those casualties most likely to benefit from the limited resources available
  • provides a framework for difficult and stressful life-and-death decisions creates order in a chaotic environment

Triage is initially performed to assess and apply priority in 30 to 60 seconds per casualty.

Triage must be:

  1. dynamic – effective, changing based on initial and following assessments and response to treatment
  2. safe – and evidence based
  3. fast

Triage methods

There are a variety of triage systems in operation across the world, we will use a simple method.

  1. Is the casualty breathing? (clear airway whilst checking)
  2. Is there major bleeding?
  3. Are they responsive? (answer commands, blink, etc)

Casualties are then attributed to one of the following four categories:

Immediate (red tag): casualties with life threatening but treatable injuries requiring immediate medical attention are assigned a red tag. These casualties are the first to be transported to hospital when medical help arrives, apply first aid once all casualties have been triaged.

Urgent (orange or yellow tag): casualties with serious injuries, but able to wait a short time for treatment are assigned an orange tag. Encouage the casualty to apply personal first aid if possible until help can be given.

Delayed (green tag): casualties who can wait hours to days for treatment are assigned a green tag. These casualties can be separated from the more seriously injured by asking for casualties able to walk (i.e. ‘minor’ casualties) to congregate in a specified area. Encourage them to help each other or help the more injured if possible.

Dead (white or black tag): casualties who are dead or not expected to live because of the severity of their injuries and the limited resources available. These casualties are assigned either a white or black tag. If alive ask a green tag casualty to provide comfort/support to the casualty.


Personal protective equipment during SHTF

Personal protective equipment or PPE is any equipment designed or adapted to protect you from danger or harm.

During normal day to day life we use PPE all the time, seat belts, oven gloves and sunglasses are all designed to protect you. What items can be valuable in a disaster situation?

WROL riot situation/roving gangs/violent confrontations

  • Motorcycle helmet-vision restricted but excellent protection against blunt force trauma. doesn’t attract attention like a military style helmet.
  • Gloves-slash proof would be ideal but any strong gloves will offer protection against glass, rubble etc.
  • Stab vests-essential protection against edged weapons and other improvised stabbing tools. some even offer blunt force trauma protection. Can be worn concealed for grey man appearance.
  • Ballistic vests-offers protection against firearms of varying calibers, may not protect against knifes unless rated for knife protection.
  • ballistic glasses/eye wear-look good while protecting the mark one human eyeball.
  • Shin pads-not just for the sports field, these can give you an edge on the streets!
  • Thick/padded jackets-keep yourself warm and safe from strikes from marauders.
  • Gas mask-a well fitting mask with filters suitable for riot control agents could prove invaluable, allowing you to escape the effected area to safety.
  • Boots-slip resistance and can double as a weapon.PPSS-Stab-Vest-Covert


Floding (home environment)

  • Wellies-keep those feet dry.
  • Life vest/buoyancy vest -in extreme cases this could save your life.
  • Rubber gloves-with sewers overflowing keeping your hands clean is vital!
  • Wading stick-check the path ahead whilst travelling in water.images

Biological attack/pandemic

  • Suitable face masks/eye protection-keep the bugs out of your body.
  • Disposable suits/aprons-keep your clothes clean whilst caring for the sick.
  • Disposable gloves-same as above.
  • Hand sanitiser-important in any disaster situation.

Rebuilding process

  • Hard hat-protection from falling materials.
  • work gloves-keep hands safe from nails and other building materials.
  • Heavy duty overalls- abrasion resistance and style.
  • Protective eye wear-you will want to see your completed handy work.
  • Steel toe capped work boots-keep feet safe from nails and help prevent slips and falls.

Bartering during SHTF

Sometimes even the most prepared can be caught off guard and may be without the items needed during an emergency situation. Here is a rundown of useful items that may be worthwhile putting aside for possible bartering opportunities and a little history to back up why its a good idea.24BA417A00000578-2912175-image-a-21_1421351727319

First a little history

During World War II, the nations of occupied Europe had a healthy black market going on. This was basically a barter market, mostly in foodstuffs. The Germans were trying to take as much of the product/materials of the occupied counties from the citizens of those countries. They needed those goods to finance their war machine. Unfortunately, the people they were taking it from needed it as well.

People in the cities, would visit the country, “on holiday” to see “friends and relatives.” They would make the trip carrying a large suitcase, which rather than being filled with clothes would be filled with silver and jewelry. Once out in the country, they would trade those items to the farmers for hams, cheeses, sausages, butter and other preserved meats.

This ended up being very profitable for the farmers. When the war ended and life returned to some semblance of normal, they were able to sell that silver and jewelry, making a large profit on it. Many farmers who had been poor became well off, due to that black market bartering!

What to store for trade

Bartering requires having something that will be valued by others. The idea is that you trade something that they perceive as being valuable for something that you perceive as valuable. Ideally, the items being traded away will be items that their owner doesn’t feel are of value. That way, both parties walk out of the deal feeling like they made out well.

The key is to determine what sorts of goods will become valuable during an emergency. You have to realize, value in such a time is measured differently than it is in “normal” times. Whereas we see gold as being much more valuable than rice, if we were starving to death, the gold wouldn’t keep us alive; but the rice could.

Value is always based upon the law of supply and demand. Basically, the more scarce an item is and the more people want it, the more valuable it becomes. So, when food is in short supply, food becomes much more valuable than normal. Things that are common today will be difficult to come by. If those things are needed for life, they will quickly become very valuable and stay valuable until they become commonplace once again.


The most valuable items in a time of crisis aren’t actually the food and other things we need to survive. They are the things that people consume to cope with the situation; alcohol, cigarettes and drugs. Sales of these items always increase in times of financial recession, hardship and after a disaster.

Most people are used to using these substances on an ongoing basis. If you dig into why they are using them, a lot of it is to help them deal with stress. They are dissatisfied with various things in their lives and drink or smoke to deal with it. This may be the only place where Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs doesn’t apply, as many of these people will put their vices before the most basic necessities of life. This can play to your advantage, if you stockpile those items for use in bartering in a crisis.

  • Alcohol – This is probably the number one trade good in any crisis situation. People will consume alcohol in any form, just as long as it will help them to get drunk. It will be more efficient for you to stockpile hard liquor, rather than beer or wine, as the higher alcoholic content means that you can provide more product per volume.

It is best to stockpile alcohol in smaller containers, as that will give you the most profit in trading. When trading with someone, they will see a bottle as a bottle. In many cases, they’ll be willing to give almost as much for a pint bottle as they would for a fifth. The other option is to have large bottles, like gallons, with a way to decant the liquor and trade it.

  • Cigarettes – There are countless millions of people in the country who are addicted to smoking. Once again, it’s a means for them to deal with the stress of their lives. But those cigarettes may be hard to find during a financial collapse, as there may be problems with distribution.

For years, cigarettes have been the “money” of prisons, with the prisoners trading them for favors and other items. They can be readily traded individually or in packs, based upon what you are trading them for.

Instead of cigarettes, which don’t store well over long periods of time, you may want to consider stockpiling raw tobacco and papers. While not as elegant as factory rolled cigarettes, they will stay fresh longer. You could even buy a small cigarette roller, so that you could make your own “factory rolled” cigarettes.

  • Condoms – While people don’t think of it as such, sex is commonly used for dealing with stress as well. Considering that an orgasm is the best muscle relaxant there is, that makes sense. Something like a major disaster won’t keep people away from sex, although it might make them more cautious about pregnancy. That makes a great market for condoms.
  • Coffee – While it may not seem like it belongs in this category, there are more people who are addicted to their morning cup of coffee, than all the other addictions combined. Coffee will become extremely valuable, something that people will want to drink to comfort themselves and use for maintaining a feeling of normalcy in their lives.

|Feed them

After the items that feed their vices, the next most important thing to have on-hand for bartering is food to feed people’s bodies. During the financial collapses in Argentina, Cyprus and Greece in recent years, availability of food has been the biggest problem for the average person. Bartering co-ops formed in Argentina, specifically for the purpose of bartering food items.

The food you will want to stockpile for bartering are basic food that will keep well, when stored for a prolonged period of time. Many of these will be the same foodstuffs that you are stockpiling for your own family’s use.

  • Canned goods of all types; meats, vegetables and fruits
  • Beans
  • Rice
  • Pasta
  • Spaghetti sauce
  • Peanut butter
  • Jams
  • Beef and turkey jerky
  • Cooking oil
  • Baking flour (unground flour stores better for long periods of time, but requires that you have a mill to grind it)
  • Sugar
  • Honey
  • Powdered milk
  • Powdered eggs
  • Chocolate

As with the earlier mentioned items, you’ll either want to stockpile these in small packages or buy them in bulk and have a way of repackaging them into smaller containers. The smaller containers make it easier for you to negotiate favorably than larger ones would do. Having products in larger containers may put you in the position of being pressured into making a deal that is not as good, simply because the other party doesn’t have as much as you want for the larger container.

non food items

While food may be the hottest trade goods out there, people will need a large amount of other goods as well. Common, everyday items may not be being manufactured or may not be as readily available as they are today. Stockpiling these items could nicely compliment your food stockpile.

  • Batteries – especially AA and AAA, which are commonly used for a wide variety of things. Buy large packages and break them up to trade as individual units.
  • Toilet paper – this could become the coin of the realm during a collapse, especially if it becomes hard to find. People might give a lot for a roll.
  • Soap – while easy to make, few people know how to anymore. Soap is cheap and easy to trade.
  • Toothpaste & toothbrushes – these common items could become hard to find.
  • Matches and lighters – this will be especially important if electrical power becomes unreliable.
  • Fuel – any sort of fuel will become valuable, whether gasoline for the car or wood for the fire. The biggest problem with most sorts of fuel will be in storing it.
  • sanitary items– keep the women in your life happy.

In addition, just about anything you need to use to survive could become valuable. The problem is that you and I don’t really know how bad things will get during that time. In all likelihood basic services will still continue, although they may become a bit unreliable. In that case, the food will be much more valuable than the other items. But if power is out in large areas, then batteries, candles and fuel could be in very high demand.

One thing you want to make sure that you do is to stockpile a variety of goods. Each situation is slightly different and we have no way of knowing for sure what there will be the most demand for. By stockpiling a variety of goods, you are most likely to end up having some items that are in high demand.

Basic rules for bartering

It’s important to remember that at least some of the people who you will be bartering with are going to feel desperate. Since desperate people do desperate things, there is always a chance that they will decide to rob you, either killing you to get what you have or just trying to get away with stealing it. You have to be ready to defend yourself at all times.

You should have someone else with you whenever you are bartering with people, unless you know them well. Your assistant needs to be a distance away from you, but able to see everything that is going on. Their main purpose in being there is to help you defend yourself, if that becomes necessary. As such, they need to make sure that they are located in a place where they can offer support, without being in a position where someone can sneak up on them and render them harmless.

It would be best if you could conduct business away from your home, as well as away from wherever you are keeping your stockpile (if it’s not at home). Often, parks and squares become impromptu markets in these types of cases, giving you an ideal place to do business. Be careful returning home from the market, checking to make sure that nobody is following you to find out where you live.

Don’t make a big show of what you have available for trade. You’re going to be much better off displaying a small amount of “merchandise” and acting as if that’s all you have. If you have a lot, it might make you too attractive a target for thieves.

While you definitely have the advantage in the situation, be careful about pressing that advantage. The best barter deals are those where both parties feel as if they won. If you press your advantage too much, you may get more, but you may make an angry customer in the process. This could lead to future violence; at a minimum, it will make that person try to avoid doing business with you in the future.


It will be up to you to determine the value of the items that you have available for trade. That will be constantly shifting, as supplies become available and then are bought up. It is likely that some standards of value will arise in your community. Use them as a guideline. Remember that the food and other supplies that you have will help keep your customers alive, which gives it a high value; but only as long as it is rare. The items they have for trade may be valuable in normal times, but are not so valuable during the crisis, due to their inability to help sustain life.

Use them as a guideline. Remember that the food and other supplies that you have will help keep your customers alive, which gives it a high value; but only as long as it is rare. The items they have for trade may be valuable in normal times, but are not so valuable during the crisis, due to their inability to help sustain life.


Home lighting post SHTF

Keeping the house lit if the power goes out…be it long or short term having a power cut can play havoc on a family home! Everything from stubbed toes to broken bones can happen as a result of being without light.power-cut-in-Delhi-India-in-summer-season

Candles would be an obvious choice to avoid these problems but with candles comes the danger of fire (if used without care) and with young children they can be totally impractical. However they are cheap and easy to store which makes them ideal for a prepper.

Torches and battery powered lanterns.
An ideal, safe form of instant light, as long as you have an ample supply of batteries! Perfect for traveling or for short term emergencys.

Instant light at the snap of a stick! However they can be expensive and only last a few hours. Great for signaling but not so great for long term illumination.

Garden solar lights.
An often overlooked form of lighting! Harness the power of the sun to make your garden pretty and if the shtf bring them inside at night to light up your home, in the morning simply put them back outside. Safe, renewable power, be the grey man with a pretty garden!garden-solar-lights-classic

With so many forms of lighting decide what’s best for you and prepare now so you aren’t left broken and bruised.


Emergency Uses for Paracord

Here are some of the more common uses for paracord we could think of, but the uses are really only limited by your imagination.

  •  Repair torn clothing with the internal strands which slide easily out of the kernmantle (casing). Use a makeshift needle or be sure to keep one in your first-aid kit.
  •  Repair torn or broken equipment either by sewing or tying the pieces together securely
  • Rig a makeshift tow rope.  A single length of paracord has been tested to handle 550 lbs of weight, so wrap it securely 10 times and you have the ability to pull 5500 lbs.
  • Securely tie down items to the top of a vehicle, or to protect them from a wind-storm
  • String up a clothes line. Wet clothes are uncomfortable when you’re camping and dangerous when you’re trying to survive.
  • Hang a bear bag to keep your food away from hungry critters. This is good whether you’re camping or roughing it in the woods
  • Replace your shoe laces. Just burn the ends and thread them through.
  • Replace a broken Zipper pull
  • Use it as dental floss. Pull out the internal strands and keep up your hygiene even in the woods, or to get that pesky piece of meat out from between your teeth.
  • Tie things to your backpack with it so you can carry more stuff hands free
  • Secure an animal to a tree or post, or make a leash
  • Tie up a person
  • String up a trip wire to protect an area…rig it with bells, or cans or make a fancier trap
  • Lower yourself or an object very carefully down from a height.  (note:  paracord is NOT climbing rope, and is NOT a realistic replacement for true climbing rope; do not expect it to catch you should you fall. For security double or triple the thickness if you can)
  • Rig a pulley system to lift a heavy object
  • Make a ladder to get up or down
  • Tie up a tarp or poncho to make an awning to keep off sun or rain
  • If you’re hiking in a place where there is danger of avalanche tie yourself to your buddy so you can find each other should one of you get caught under snow
  • Keep your stuff. Tie objects you’re likely to drop around your wrist, ankle, or waist
  • Make a pack by first making a netting then adding a draw-string
  • Build a shelter using sticks or by tying up the corners of a poncho or tarp
  • Rig an improvised hammock
  • Make a snare out of the internal strands
  • Lash logs or other items together to build a raft.
  • Tie snow shoes.  Bend a 1” branch in a teardrop shape. Tie it securely then weave the paracord back and forth across the opening. Tie this to your shoes.
  • Use it to make a bow drill for fire starting…(note it does take a lot of practice to start a fire with a bow, so don’t rely on this unless you’ve done it before!)
  • Make a sling to throw stones for protection and food.
  • Use it for signaling by tying a mirror or colorful cloth to the top of a tree
  • Use it to make a bola for hunting large birds
  • Make fishing line by cutting a length and pulling out the internal strands (there are seven of them, each of which comes apart into two, so there’s 14 thin lines if you aren’t catching really big fish). Just tie them together.
  • Make a fish stringer. If you’ve just pulled the strings out to make fishing line, the remaining kernmantle (the colored sheath) would be plenty strong enough to hold fish. Otherwise just cut a length, and tie through the gills.
  • Secure your boat or raft
  • Make a net out of the internal strands…if you have some time on your hands
  • Tie straight sticks around a broken limb to make a splint. 
  • Tie a sling to hold your arm
  • Sew up a wound using the internal strands.  For thinner thread untwist one of the internal strands
  • Make a tourniquet to slow loss of blood
  • Make a stretcher by running paracord between two long sticks, or fashion a branch drag to move an injured person

Ready made ‘thank you/neighbor’ bags

keep your neighbors happy!


Be it local flooding, snow storms, martial law or other disaster keeping your neighbors and local family happy is important. Having some ready made ‘goody bags’ with your preps can go a long way.


It doesn’t have to be complicated in fact the simpler the better, remember OPSEC you don’t want to advertise the fact you might have much sought after supplies. keep it simple and keep it cheap!

In times of need simply hand out the bags to those you trust. simple.

What should you put in them?

  • glow sticks
  • small knife
  • candles
  • water purification tablets
  • batteries
  • small torch
  • matches/lighter
  • paracord
  • soap
  • tissues
  • whistle
  • instant heat pads
  • fishing kit
  • sewing kit
  • sweets/chocolate

Remember to keep your preps hidden and look after each other.



WTF does SHTF mean? ‘prepper’ acronyms

With every community or industry there are sayings and acronyms that are used…there never seems to be a guide for what they mean, and most of the time you may feel to embarrassed to ask. We at UKSN are here to help. Here is a list of the most commonly used ones:DSCF3008

  • BOB  “Bug-Out Bag”  A bag that is packed with items you will need if you’re forced to quickly evacuate your home.
  • EDC  “Everyday Carry”  Something you carry with you every day. For example, a pocket knife, multi tool, or a torch.
  • EMP  “Electromagnetic Pulse”  A type of weapon that could be used to bring down the electrical grid. Usually appears as “EMP attack.”
  • SHTF  “Shit Hits the Fan”  Generically used to describe crisis situations. In a broader context, it refers to a time when we finally experience the natural consequences of our bad decisions. Can be applied on a national or personal level. Sometimes the longer version of this acronym is used: WTSHTF – When the Shit Hits the Fan.
  • TEOTWAWKI  “The End of the World as We Know It”  A situation where everything we are accustomed to changes. This acronym is long and awkward, so the misspelled version is also fairly common: TEOWATKI.
  • BOL  “Bug-Out Location”  The place where family members/friends have agreed to meet in case of evacuation.
  • BOV  “Bug-Out Vehicle”  A vehicle, be it a bike, car or truck that is specifically equipped to bug out.
  • EOTW  “End of the World”  Not the literal end of planet earth, but the end of a government, a nation, or a particular way of life.
  • G.O.O.D.  “Get Out of Dodge”  A phrase that means one should leave town or get out of the city and stay somewhere else.
  • MRE  “Meal Ready to Eat”  Originally a military term. Refers to individually packaged rations for soldiers in the field.
  • MSM  “Mainstream Media”  Refers to major news networks that seem to be more interested in pushing propaganda than reporting actual news.
  • WROL  “Without Rule of Law”  Describes a situation where there is anarchy and/or martial law. In either case, ordinary civil laws would not or could not be enforced.
  • YOYO  “You’re on Your Own”  The idea that you cannot depend on anybody else when the SHTF.
  • FUBAR  “F***ed Up Beyond All Recognition”  Military term that means something is really messed up.
  • INCH  “I’m Never Coming Home”  A bag that is packed with items you will need if you’re forced to quickly evacuate your home and you intend to never return home.

Often overlooked ‘preps’

So you’ve got plenty of water, food, first aid supplies and enough tents to house an army…All set for a possible SHTF scenario? Maybe not. here is a list of things that are often overlooked:DSCF3015

  • Musical instruments, for entertainment.
  • Aluminum foil. For signaling, cooking, boiling water.
  • Footballs. For keeping children busy and exercise.
  • Bicycle parts and repair kits. Petrol/diesel shortages may make cars unusable.
  • Books. Both novels and practical skill based books to keep the mind busy.
  • clothes lines and pegs, lightweight and important to keep clothes dry.
  • Condoms. Just because the world as we know it has ended, it doesn’t mean we cant still have fun. Pregnancy will want to be avoided.
  • Duct tape. No reason needed…Its uses never end!
  • Dental floss. Mouth hygiene is important!
  • Board games. keep occupied and entertain children.
  • Spare glasses and repair kits.
  • Glow sticks.
  • Goggles. Both swimming type and safety.
  • Instant hand cleaner. Although no substitute for hot water and soap, keeping clean will be important.
  • Tea and coffee. No explanation needed.
  • Maps of the local area. Road maps and OS maps.
  • Paper plates. For short term emergency’s like flooding.
  • Paper and pencils. Keep a dairy, draw maps, make notes.
  • Pet supplies. Don’t let Rover get worms or fleas!
  • A sewing kit. For repairing clothes.
  • Boot/shoe laces.
  • Gas/Water keys. for shutting down household utilities.
  • Slingshots. For taking small game.
  • Tampons/feminine hygiene products. Hell hath no fury like a woman scorned!
  • Whistles. Great for all members of your group in case of attack or getting lost.
  • Wind up clocks. Save batteries.
  • Zip lock bags. Great for organizing and keeping food fresh.
  • Porn. Morale and trading.

Hopefully this list will help you think of any items you might be missing.


CPR technique (first aid)

CPR is a lifesaving skill, we advise you to seek professional training but hopefully this information will help you should the need arise! 


Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a lifesaving technique useful in many emergencies, including heart attack or near drowning, in which someone’s breathing or heartbeat has stopped. 

 It’s far better to do something than to do nothing at all if you’re fearful that your knowledge or abilities aren’t 100 percent complete. Remember, the difference between your doing something and doing nothing could be someone’s life.

Here’s advice from the American Heart Association:

  • Untrained. If you’re not trained in CPR, then provide hands-only CPR. That means uninterrupted chest compressions of about 100 a minute until paramedics arrive (described in more detail below). You don’t need to try rescue breathing.
  • Trained and ready to go. If you’re well-trained and confident in your ability, begin with chest compressions instead of first checking the airway and doing rescue breathing. Start CPR with 30 chest compressions before checking the airway and giving rescue breaths.
  • Trained but rusty. If you’ve previously received CPR training but you’re not confident in your abilities, then just do chest compressions at a rate of about 100 a minute. (Details described below.)

The above advice applies to adults, children and infants needing CPR, but not newborns.

CPR can keep oxygenated blood flowing to the brain and other vital organs until more definitive medical treatment can restore a normal heart rhythm.

When the heart stops, the lack of oxygenated blood can cause brain damage in only a few minutes. A person may die within eight to 10 minutes.

To learn CPR properly, take an accredited first-aid training course, including CPR and how to use an automated external defibrillator (AED). If you are untrained and have immediate access to a phone, call 999 before beginning CPR. The dispatcher can instruct you in the proper procedures until help arrives.

Before you begin

Before starting CPR, check:

  • Is the person conscious or unconscious?
  • If the person appears unconscious, tap or shake his or her shoulder and ask loudly, “Are you OK?”
  • If the person doesn’t respond and two people are available, one should call 999 or the local emergency number and one should begin CPR. If you are alone and have immediate access to a telephone, call 999 before beginning CPR — unless you think the person has become unresponsive because of suffocation (such as from drowning). In this special case, begin CPR for one minute and then call 999 or the local emergency number.
  • If an AED is immediately available, deliver one shock if instructed by the device, then begin CPR.

Remember to spell C-A-B

The American Heart Association uses the acronym of CAB — compressions, airway, breathing — to help people remember the order to perform the steps of CPR.

Compressions: Restore blood circulation

  1. Put the person on his or her back on a firm surface.
  2. Kneel next to the person’s neck and shoulders.
  3. Place the heel of one hand over the center of the person’s chest, between the nipples. Place your other hand on top of the first hand. Keep your elbows straight and position your shoulders directly above your hands.
  4. Use your upper body weight (not just your arms) as you push straight down on (compress) the chest at least 2 inches (approximately 5 centimeters). Push hard at a rate of about 100 compressions a minute.
  5. If you haven’t been trained in CPR, continue chest compressions until there are signs of movement or until emergency medical personnel take over. If you have been trained in CPR, go on to checking the airway and rescue breathing.

Airway: Clear the airway

  1. If you’re trained in CPR and you’ve performed 30 chest compressions, open the person’s airway using the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver. Put your palm on the person’s forehead and gently tilt the head back. Then with the other hand, gently lift the chin forward to open the airway.
  2. Check for normal breathing, taking no more than five or 10 seconds. Look for chest motion, listen for normal breath sounds, and feel for the person’s breath on your cheek and ear. Gasping is not considered to be normal breathing. If the person isn’t breathing normally and you are trained in CPR, begin mouth-to-mouth breathing. If you believe the person is unconscious from a heart attack and you haven’t been trained in emergency procedures, skip mouth-to-mouth breathing and continue chest compressions.

Breathing: Breathe for the person

Rescue breathing can be mouth-to-mouth breathing or mouth-to-nose breathing if the mouth is seriously injured or can’t be opened.

  1. With the airway open (using the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver), pinch the nostrils shut for mouth-to-mouth breathing and cover the person’s mouth with yours, making a seal.
  2. Prepare to give two rescue breaths. Give the first rescue breath — lasting one second — and watch to see if the chest rises. If it does rise, give the second breath. If the chest doesn’t rise, repeat the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver and then give the second breath. Thirty chest compressions followed by two rescue breaths is considered one cycle.
  3. Resume chest compressions to restore circulation.
  4. If the person has not begun moving after five cycles (about two minutes) and an automated external defibrillator (AED) is available, apply it and follow the prompts. Administer one shock, then resume CPR — starting with chest compressions — for two more minutes before administering a second shock. If you’re not trained to use an AED, a 999 or other emergency medical operator may be able to guide you in its use. If an AED isn’t available, go to step 5 below.
  5. Continue CPR until there are signs of movement or emergency medical personnel take over.

To perform CPR on a child

 The procedure for giving CPR to a child age 1 through 8 is essentially the same as that for an adult. The differences are as follows:
  • If you’re alone, perform five cycles of compressions and breaths on the child — this should take about two minutes — before calling 999 or your local emergency number or using an AED.
  • Use only one hand to perform chest compressions.
  • Breathe more gently.
  • Use the same compression-breath rate as is used for adults: 30 compressions followed by two breaths. This is one cycle. Following the two breaths, immediately begin the next cycle of compressions and breaths.
  • After five cycles (about two minutes) of CPR, if there is no response and an AED is available, apply it and follow the prompts. Use pediatric pads if available, for children ages 1 through 8. If pediatric pads aren’t available, use adult pads. Do not use an AED for children younger than age 1. Administer one shock, then resume CPR — starting with chest compressions — for two more minutes before administering a second shock. If you’re not trained to use an AED, a 999 or other emergency medical operator may be able to guide you in its use.

Continue until the child moves or help arrives.

To perform CPR on a baby

 Most cardiac arrests in babies occur from lack of oxygen, such as from drowning or choking. If you know the baby has an airway obstruction, perform first aid for choking. If you don’t know why the baby isn’t breathing, perform CPR.

To begin, examine the situation. Stroke the baby and watch for a response, such as movement, but don’t shake the baby.

If there’s no response, follow the CAB procedures below and time the call for help as follows:

  • If you’re the only rescuer and CPR is needed, do CPR for two minutes — about five cycles — before calling 999 or your local emergency number.
  • If another person is available, have that person call for help immediately while you attend to the baby.

Compressions: Restore blood circulation

  1. Place the baby on his or her back on a firm, flat surface, such as a table. The floor or ground also will do.
  2. Imagine a horizontal line drawn between the baby’s nipples. Place two fingers of one hand just below this line, in the center of the chest.
  3. Gently compress the chest about 1.5 inches (about 4 centimeters).
  4. Count aloud as you pump in a fairly rapid rhythm. You should pump at a rate of 100 compressions a minute.

Airway: Clear the airway

  1. After 30 compressions, gently tip the head back by lifting the chin with one hand and pushing down on the forehead with the other hand.
  2. In no more than 10 seconds, put your ear near the baby’s mouth and check for breathing: Look for chest motion, listen for breath sounds, and feel for breath on your cheek and ear.

Breathing: Breathe for the baby

  1. Cover the baby’s mouth and nose with your mouth.
  2. Prepare to give two rescue breaths. Use the strength of your cheeks to deliver gentle puffs of air (instead of deep breaths from your lungs) to slowly breathe into the baby’s mouth one time, taking one second for the breath. Watch to see if the baby’s chest rises. If it does, give a second rescue breath. If the chest does not rise, repeat the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver and then give the second breath.
  3. If the baby’s chest still doesn’t rise, examine the mouth to make sure no foreign material is inside. If an object is seen, sweep it out with your finger. If the airway seems blocked, perform first aid for a choking baby.
  4. Give two breaths after every 30 chest compressions.
  5. Perform CPR for about two minutes before calling for help unless someone else can make the call while you attend to the baby.
  6. Continue CPR until you see signs of life or until medical personnel arrive.