EDC: Every Day Carry

I want to take this opportunity to discuss the topic of “Every Day Carry”. For me my EDC is probably the most important thing I have, for the simple reason it’s the one piece of kit I carry everywhere (well almost everywhere) and as such will be the first thing to hand in the event of an emergency however big or small.
My Every Day Carry has taken many sizes and shapes over the years starting as a shoulder bag, then be reduced down to a small pouch before finally upgrading to a small backpack, and i’m sure it will continue to evolve as my life and daily requirements change and therefore like many, I consider it a work in progress that will likely never be finished.

For those of you that carry an EDC already this may not be anything new, however for those you that don’t my hope is that it will give you some food for thought. You may work in an office and keep your GHB in the car and want something smaller to hand throughout the day, you may be a driver and have a GHB in boot and therefore don’t see the need in another pack.

The first point I want to make is that this is NOT a Bug Out Bag or a Get Home Bag, it is simply a bag that is designed to make my life easier on a day to day basis whether that be a run of the mill Monday or an emergency! And in the event of an emergency get me to one of my other bags.

An EDC as the title suggests is simply your Every Day Carry, a selection of items which you have on your person everyday, this could be as simple as a mobile phone, keys and wallet, or it could be a bag of selected gear if you are happy to carry it. The point is it really depends on your individual wants and requirements.

I’m going to break my EDC up into a number areas so you can see exactly what I carry on myself as standard.

KEYS: Assorted keys, mini pry bar with integrated bottle/can opener, seatbelt cutter, phillips and flathead screwdrivers, peanut lighters, Spyderco Grasshopper Knife (UK Legal Folder), Peanut cash stash, LED Lenser K2 mini torch, paracord lanyard, Carabiner.

MOBILE PHONE: Internet, downloaded survival books and documents.

WALLET: Fresnel lense, credit card survival tool, UKSN coin, water purification tablets, storm matches, plasters.

2 x Paracord Bracelets (on my wrist), 1 with an integrated ferro rod, whistle and compass.

BAG (5.11 Rush 12) See below for contents.
CARRY STRAP – Attached paracord bracelet.
5.11 DUMP POUCH – Folded and empty.
MOLLE SIDE POUCH – Basic first aid supplies (plasters, bandages, antiseptic, alcohol wipes etc), paracetamol, Ibuprofen, heartburn tablets, hayfever tablets, dental floss, sewing kit.
LARGE FRONT POCKET – Sawyer Mini, wind up radio, pocket binoculars, Bushnell Backtrack, all weather note pad, sharpie, pen, deck of playing cards, 2x LED torches, snack bars, water purification tablets, storm matches, portable charger for phone and other USB devices.
SMALL FRONT POCKET – Farb criminal identifier spray, charger cable, hygiene wipes, chapstick, vaseline, hot sauce, spare car key, gum.
BACK PANEL POCKET – Beanie hat, shemagh, poncho, gloves
MAIN COMPARTMENT – bottle of water, umbrella, admin pouch with – eating tool, screwdriver pen and multiple attachments inc alan keys, pen torch, multi-tool, CRKT Edgie knife (UK legal folder), duck tape, paracord superglue, small fire kit, tin foil, tactical pen.

With the exception of the admin pouch small bottle of water and small brolly my main compartment is empty, which allows me to store my lunchbox, jacket or even boots if needed, its not heavy and the bag itself is quite small.

Of course you dont have to have all of the above, or you could even add more if you want, your EDC is about making your everyday life easier, most of the above has been added by me following instances where I needed something and didnt have it…. now I do, and my bag now feels like an extension of me No doubt over the coming years I will remove and add bits and pieces but for right now its perfect for my needs. I hope this has given you some ideas to consider and as always, any questions just ask.

Dan

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Treating hypothermia

Hypothermia is treated by preventing further heat being lost and by gently warming the patient.

You should seek immediate medical attention if you suspect someone has hypothermia as it can be life threatening.

Treating mild or moderate hypothermia

If you’re waiting for medical treatment to arrive, the advice below will help prevent further heat loss.

  • Move the person indoors or somewhere warm as soon as possible.
  • Once the person is in a warm environment, carefully remove any wet clothing and dry them.
  • Wrap them in warm blankets, towels, or coats (whatever you have available), protecting their head and torso first.
  • Encourage the person to shiver if they’re capable of doing so.
  • If possible, give the person warm drinks (not alcohol) or high-energy foods, such as chocolate, to help warm them up. But only do this if they can swallow normally –ask them to cough to see if they can swallow.
  • Once the person’s body temperature has increased, keep them warm and dry.

It’s important to handle a person with hypothermia gently and carefully.

Things to avoid

There are certain things you shouldn’t do when helping someone with hypothermia because it may make the condition worse:

  • don’t put the cold person into a hot bath
  • don’t massage their limbs
  • don’t use heating lamps
  • don’t give them alcohol to drink

Trying to warm someone up yourself with hot water, massages, heat pads and heat lamps can cause the blood vessels in the arms and legs to open up too quickly.

If this happens, it can lead to a dramatic fall in blood pressure to the vital organs such as the brain, heart, lungs and kidneys, potentially resulting in cardiac arrest and death.

Severe hypothermia

If someone you know has been exposed to the cold and they’re distressed or confused, they have slow, shallow breathing or they’re unconscious, they may have severe hypothermia. Their skin may look healthy but feel cold. Babies may also be limp, unusually quiet and refuse to feed.

Cases of severe hypothermia require urgent medical treatment in hospital. You should call 999 to request an ambulance if you suspect someone has severe hypothermia.

As the body temperature drops, shivering will stop completely. The heart rate will slow and a person will gradually lose consciousness. They won’t appear to have a pulse or be breathing. If you know how to do it, CPR should be given while you wait for help to arrive.

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Choking in adults and older children.

We’ve all been there, casually sucking on a sweet minding our own business when suddenly you start to choke!

Choking happens when someone’s airway suddenly gets blocked, either fully or partly, so they can’t breathe.

Mild choking:

Encourage them to cough

If the airway is only partly blocked, the person will usually be able to speak, cry, cough or breathe. They will usually be able to clear the blockage themselves.

To help with mild choking in an adult or child over one year old:

Encourage the person to keep coughing to try and clear the blockage. Ask the person to try to spit out the object if it’s in their mouth. Don’t put your fingers in their mouth to help them as they may bite you accidentally.

If coughing doesn’t work, start back blows!

Severe choking:

 back blows and abdominal thrusts

Where choking is severe, the person will not be able to speak, cry, cough or breathe. Without help, they will eventually become unconscious.

To help an adult or child over one year old:

Stand behind the person and slightly to one side. Support their chest with one hand. Lean the person forward so that the object blocking their airway will come out of their mouth, rather than moving further down. Give up to five sharp blows between the person’s shoulder blades with the heel of your hand. (The heel is between the palm of your hand and your wrist). Check if the blockage has cleared. If not, give up to five abdominal thrusts!

Important: Don’t give abdominal thrusts to babies under one year old or to pregnant women!

Stand behind the person who is choking. Place your arms around their waist and bend them forward. Clench one fist and place it right above their belly button. Put the other hand on top of your fist and pull sharply inwards and upwards. Repeat this movement up to five times.

If the person’s airway is still blocked after trying back blows and abdominal thrusts, get help immediately:

Call 999 and ask for an ambulance. Tell the 999 operator that the person is choking. Continue with the cycles of five back blows and five abdominal thrusts until help arrives.

If the person loses consciousness and they’re not breathing, you should begin cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with chest compressions.

Complications

Abdominal thrusts can cause serious injuries. Where this potentially life-saving treatment has been necessary, a health professional such as your GP or a doctor in A&E should always examine the person afterwards.

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Triage, mass casualty management

Triage is an intial assessment and sorting of casualties based on medical need and likely response to treatment.

In a multiple-casualty situation, triage is essential to effectively sort casualties and prioritise their order of treatment to ensure that the greatest good can be done for as many casualties as possible. Its not fun and can be traumatic but is needed to save as mant people as possible.

mass-casualty-mockupsThe principles of assessment can be used to determine the degree of urgency in the management of most casualties. Triage should be prioritised over treatment and only the following procedures should be carried out while assessing casualties:

  • ensure that the airway is open
  • control major bleeding

Triage is essential for managing multiple casualty events as it:

  • prioritises treatment to use available resources as efficiently as possible
  • ensures that care is focused on those casualties most likely to benefit from the limited resources available
  • provides a framework for difficult and stressful life-and-death decisions creates order in a chaotic environment

Triage is initially performed to assess and apply priority in 30 to 60 seconds per casualty.

Triage must be:

  1. dynamic – effective, changing based on initial and following assessments and response to treatment
  2. safe – and evidence based
  3. fast

Triage methods

There are a variety of triage systems in operation across the world, we will use a simple method.

  1. Is the casualty breathing? (clear airway whilst checking)
  2. Is there major bleeding?
  3. Are they responsive? (answer commands, blink, etc)

Casualties are then attributed to one of the following four categories:

Immediate (red tag): casualties with life threatening but treatable injuries requiring immediate medical attention are assigned a red tag. These casualties are the first to be transported to hospital when medical help arrives, apply first aid once all casualties have been triaged.

Urgent (orange or yellow tag): casualties with serious injuries, but able to wait a short time for treatment are assigned an orange tag. Encouage the casualty to apply personal first aid if possible until help can be given.

Delayed (green tag): casualties who can wait hours to days for treatment are assigned a green tag. These casualties can be separated from the more seriously injured by asking for casualties able to walk (i.e. ‘minor’ casualties) to congregate in a specified area. Encourage them to help each other or help the more injured if possible.

Dead (white or black tag): casualties who are dead or not expected to live because of the severity of their injuries and the limited resources available. These casualties are assigned either a white or black tag. If alive ask a green tag casualty to provide comfort/support to the casualty.

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Treating burns and scalds (first aid)

Appropriate first aid must be used to treat any burns or scalds as soon as possible. This will limit the amount of damage to your skin. You can apply the following first aid techniques to yourself or another person who has been burnt.

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First aid for burns

  • Stop the burning process as soon as possible. This may mean removing the person from the area, dousing flames with water, or smothering flames with a blanket. Don’t put yourself at risk of getting burnt as well.
  • Remove any clothing or jewellery near the burnt area of skin, including babies’ nappies. However, don’t try to remove anything that’s stuck to the burnt skin as this could cause more damage.
  • Cool the burn with cool or lukewarm running water for 20 minutes, as soon as possible after the injury. Never use ice, iced water, or any creams or greasy substances such as butter.
  • Keep yourself or the person warm. Use a blanket or layers of clothing, but avoid putting them on the injured area. Keeping warm will prevent hypothermia, where a person’s body temperature drops below 35C (95F). This is a risk if you are cooling a large burnt area, particularly in young children and elderly people.
  • Cover the burn with cling film. Put the cling film in a layer over the burn, rather than wrapping it around a limb. A clean clear plastic bag can be used for burns on your hand.
  • Treat the pain from a burn with paracetamol or ibuprofen. Always check the manufacturer’s instructions when using over-the-counter medication. Children under 16 years of age should not be given aspirin.
  • Sit upright as much as possible if the face or eyes are burnt. Avoid lying down for as long as possible as this will help to reduce swelling.

When to go to hospital

Once you have taken these steps, you’ll need to decide whether further medical treatment is necessary. Go to a hospital accident and emergency (A&E) department for:

  • large or deep burns – bigger than the affected person’s hand
  • burns of any size that cause white or charred skin
  • burns on the face, hands, arms, feet, legs or genitals that cause blisters
  • all chemical and electrical burns

Also get medical help straight away if the person with the burn:

  • has other injuries that need treating
  • is going into shock – signs include cold, clammy skin, sweating, rapid, shallow breathing, and weakness or dizziness
  • is pregnant
  • is over the age of 60
  • is under the age of five
  • has a medical condition such as heart, lung or liver disease, or diabetes
    has a weakened immune system (the body’s defence system) – for example, because of HIV or AIDS, or because they’re having chemotherapy for cancer
  • If someone has breathed in smoke or fumes, they should also seek medical attention.

Some symptoms may be delayed, and can include:

  • coughing
  • a sore throat
  • difficulty breathing
  • singed nasal hair
  • facial burns

Electrical burns
Electrical burns may not look serious, but they can be very damaging. Someone who has an electrical burn should seek immediate medical attention at an A&E department.
If the person has been injured by a low-voltage source (up to 220-240 volts) such as a domestic electricity supply, safely switch off the power supply or remove the person from the electrical source using a material that doesn’t conduct electricity, such as a wooden stick or a wooden chair.
Don’t approach a person who is connected to a high-voltage source (1,000 volts or more).
Chemical burns
Chemical burns can be very damaging and require immediate medical attention at an A&E department. If possible, find out what chemical caused the burn and tell the healthcare professionals at A&E.

  • If you’re helping someone else, put on appropriate protective clothing and then remove any contaminated clothing on the person
  • if the chemical is dry, brush it off their skin
  • use running water to remove any traces of the chemical from the burnt area

Sunburn

If you notice any signs of sunburn, such as hot, red and painful skin, move into the shade or preferably inside.

  • Take a cool bath or shower to cool down the burnt area of skin.
  • Apply aftersun lotion to the affected area to moisturise, cool and soothe it. Don’t use greasy or oily products
  • If you have any pain, paracetamol or ibuprofen should help relieve it. Always read the manufacturer’s instructions and do not give aspirin to children under the age of 16.
  • Stay hydrated by drinking plenty of water.

 

Watch out for signs of heat exhaustion or heatstroke, where the temperature inside your body rises to 37-40C (98.6-104F) or above. Symptoms include dizziness, a rapid pulse or vomiting.
If a person with heat exhaustion is taken to a cool place quickly, given water to drink and has their clothing loosened, they should start to feel better within half an hour.
If they don’t, they could develop heatstroke. This is a medical emergency and you’ll need to call 999 for an ambulance.sweat-cleanse-1

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Lyme disease Factsheet

Lyme disease, or Lyme borreliosis, is a bacterial infection spread to humans by infected ticks.

Ticks are tiny spider-like creatures found in woodland and heath areas. They feed on the blood of birds and mammals, including humans. Ticks that carry the bacteria responsible for Lyme disease are found throughout the UK and in other parts of Europe and North America.

It’s estimated there are 2,000 to 3,000 new cases of Lyme disease in England and Wales each year. About 15% of cases occur while people are abroad.

Lyme disease can often be treated effectively if it’s detected early on. But if it’s not treated or treatment is delayed, there’s a risk you could develop severe and long-lasting symptoms.

 

Signs and symptoms of Lyme disease

Early symptoms

Many people with early-stage Lyme disease develop a distinctive circular rash at the site of the tick bite, usually around three to 30 days after being bitten. This is known as erythema migrans.

The rash is often described as looking like a bull’s-eye on a dart board. The affected area of skin will be red and the edges may feel slightly raised.

The size of the rash can vary significantly and it may expand over several days or weeks. Typically it’s around 15cm (6 inches) across, but it can be much larger or smaller than this. Some people may develop several rashes in different parts of their body.

However, around one in three people with Lyme disease won’t develop this rash.

Some people with Lyme disease also experience flu-like symptoms in the early stages, such as tiredness (fatigue), muscle pain, joint pain,headaches, a high temperature (fever), chills and neck stiffness.

Later symptoms

More serious symptoms may develop several weeks, months or even years later if Lyme disease is left untreated or is not treated early on. These can include:

  • pain and swelling in the joints (inflammatory arthritis)
  • problems affecting the nervous system – such as numbness and pain in your limbs, paralysis of your facial muscles, memory problems and difficulty concentrating
  • heart problems – such as inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis) or sac surrounding the heart (pericarditis), heart block and heart failure
  • inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord (meningitis) – which can cause a severe headache, a stiff neck and increased sensitivity to light

Some of these problems will get better slowly with treatment, although they can persist if treatment is started late.

A few people with Lyme disease go on to develop long-term symptoms similar to those of fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue syndrome. This is known as post-infectious Lyme disease. It’s not clear exactly why this happens, but it’s likely to be related to overactivity of your immune system rather than persistent infection.

When to see your GP

You should see your GP if you develop any of the symptoms described above after being bitten by a tick, or if you think you may have been bitten. Make sure you let your GP know if you’ve spent time in woodland or heath areas where ticks are known to live.

Diagnosing Lyme disease is often difficult as many of the symptoms are similar to other conditions. A spreading rash some days after a known tick bite should be treated with appropriate antibiotics without waiting for the results of a blood test.

Blood tests can be carried out to confirm the diagnosis after a few weeks, but these can be negative in the early stages of the infection. You may need to be re-tested if Lyme disease is still suspected after a negative test result.

In the UK, two types of blood test are used to ensure Lyme disease is diagnosed accurately. This is because a single blood test can sometimes produce a positive result even when a person doesn’t have the infection.

If you have post-infectious Lyme disease or long-lasting symptoms, you may see a specialist in microbiology or infectious diseases. They can arrange for blood samples to be sent to the national reference laboratory run by Public Health England (PHE), where further tests for other tick-borne infections can be carried out.

How you get Lyme disease

If a tick bites an animal carrying the bacteria that cause Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), the tick can also become infected. The tick can then transfer the bacteria to a human by biting them.

Ticks can be found in any areas with deep or overgrown vegetation where they have access to animals to feed on.

They’re common in woodland and heath areas, but can also be found in gardens or parks.

Ticks don’t jump or fly, but climb on to your clothes or skin if you brush against something they’re on. They then bite into the skin and start to feed on your blood.

Generally, you’re more likely to become infected if the tick remains attached to your skin for more than 24 hours. But ticks are very small and their bites are not painful, so you may not realise you have one attached to your skin.

Who’s at risk and where are ticks found?

People who spend time in woodland or heath areas in the UK and parts of Europe or North America are most at risk of developing Lyme disease.

Most tick bites happen in late spring, early summer and autumn because these are the times of year when most people take part in outdoor activities, such as hiking and camping.

Cases of Lyme disease have been reported throughout the UK, but areas known to have a particularly high population of ticks include:

  • Exmoor
  • the New Forest and other rural areas of Hampshire
  • the South Downs
  • parts of Wiltshire and Berkshire
  • parts of Surrey and West Sussex
  • Thetford Forest in Norfolk
  • the Lake District
  • the North York Moors
  • the Scottish Highlands

It’s thought only a small proportion of ticks carry the bacteria that cause Lyme disease, so being bitten doesn’t mean you’ll definitely be infected. However, it’s important to be aware of the risk and seek medical advice if you start to feel unwell.

Treating Lyme disease

If you develop symptoms of Lyme disease, you will normally be given a course of antibiotic tablets, capsules or liquid. Most people will require a two- to four-week course, depending on the stage of the condition.

If you are prescribed antibiotics, it’s important you finish the course even if you are feeling better, because this will help ensure all the bacteria are killed.

If your symptoms are particularly severe, you may be referred to a specialist to have antibiotic injections (intravenous antibiotics).

Some of the antibiotics used to treat Lyme disease can make your skin more sensitive to sunlight. In these cases, you should avoid prolonged exposure to the sun and not use sunbeds until after you have finished the treatment.

There’s currently no clear consensus on the best treatment for post-infectious Lyme disease because the underlying cause is not yet clear. Be wary of internet sites offering alternative diagnostic tests and treatments that may not be supported by scientific evidence.

Preventing Lyme disease

There is currently no vaccine available to prevent Lyme disease. The best way to prevent the condition is to be aware of the risks when you visit areas where ticks are found and to take sensible precautions.

You can reduce the risk of infection by:

  • keeping to footpaths and avoiding long grass when out walking
  • wearing appropriate clothing in tick-infested areas (a long-sleeved shirt and trousers tucked into your socks)
  • wearing light-coloured fabrics that may help you spot a tick on your clothes
  • using insect repellent on exposed skin
  • inspecting your skin for ticks, particularly at the end of the day, including your head, neck and skin folds (armpits, groin, and waistband) – remove any ticks you find promptly
  • checking your children’s head and neck areas, including their scalp
  • making sure ticks are not brought home on your clothes
  • checking that pets do not bring ticks into your home in their fur

How to remove a tick

If you find a tick on your or your child’s skin, remove it by gently gripping it as close to the skin as possible, preferably using fine-toothed tweezers. Pull steadily away from the skin without twisting or crushing the tick.

Wash your skin with water and soap afterwards, and apply an antiseptic cream to the skin around the bite.

Don’t use a lit cigarette end, a match head or substances such as alcohol or petroleum jelly to force the tick out.

Some veterinary surgeries and pet shops sell inexpensive tick removal devices, which may be useful if you frequently spend time in areas where there are ticks.

“Chronic Lyme disease”

There has recently been a lot of focus on Lyme disease in the media, with much attention on people who’ve been diagnosed with “chronic Lyme disease”.

This term has been used by some people to describe persistent symptoms such as tiredness, aches and pains, usually in the absence of a confirmed Lyme disease infection. It’s different to “post-infectious Lyme disease” (see above), which is used to describe persistent symptoms after a confirmed and treated infection.

It’s important to be aware that a diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease is controversial. Experts do not agree on whether the condition exists, or whether the symptoms are actually caused by a different, undiagnosed problem.

In either case, there’s no evidence to suggest people diagnosed with chronic Lyme disease can pass the condition on to others, and there’s little clear evidence about how best to treat it.

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Treating an unresponsive/unconscious adult (breathing)

Unresponsiveness can last for a few seconds (e.g. fainting) or for a long time. It’s often brought on by serious illness or injury (e.g. a head injury), or by taking alcohol or other drugs. Find out what to do if an adult is unresponsive and breathing.

What to look for – Unresponsive and breathing adult

When someone looks like they’re asleep but they’re unable to respond to noise or body contact, it’s likely they’re unresponsive.

What you need to do – Unresponsive and breathing adult

Step 1 of 5: Open the airway

  • Place one hand on the casualty’s forehead and gently tilt their head back. As you do this, the mouth will fall open slightly.
  • Place the fingertips of your other hand on the point of the casualty’s chin and lift the chin.

Step 2 of 5: Check breathing

  • Look, listen and feel for normal breathing – chest movement, sounds and breaths on your cheek. Do this for no more than ten seconds.

Step 3 of 5: Put them in the recovery position

  • This will keep their airway open.
  • Kneel down next to them on the floor.
  • The next three steps are for if you find the casualty lying on their back. If you find them lying on their side or their front you may not need all three.1. Place their arm nearest you at a right angle to their body, with their palm facing upwards.3. Now you’re ready to roll them onto their side. Carefully pull on their bent knee and roll them towards you. Once you’ve done this, the top arm should be supporting the head and the bent leg should be on the floor to stop them from rolling over too far.
  • 2. Take their other arm and place it across their chest so the back of their hand is against their cheek nearest you, and hold it there. With your other hand, lift their far knee and pull it up until their foot is flat on the floor.

Step 4 of 5: If you suspect spinal injury

  • If you think the casualty could have a spinal injury, you must keep their neck as still as possible. Instead of tilting their neck, use the jaw thrust technique: place your hands on either side of their face and with your fingertips gently lift the jaw to open the airway, avoiding any movement of their neck.

Step 5 of 5: Call for help

  • Once you’ve put them safely into the recovery position, call 999 or 112 for medical help.
  • Until help arrives, keep checking the casualty’s breathing.
  • If they stop breathing at any point, call 999 or 112 straight away and get ready to give them CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation – a combination of chest pressure and rescue breaths).CPR2
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Controlling severe bleeding

When bleeding is severe, it can be dramatic and distressing. If someone’s bleeding isn’t controlled quickly, they may develop shock and lose consciousness. Shock does not mean emotional shock, but is a life-threatening condition, often caused by loss of blood.

  • If someone’s bleeding from their mouth or nose, they may find it hard to breathe, so you should keep a close eye on them in case they become unresponsive/unconscious.
  • If there’s an object in their wound, don’t press directly onto it, as it will hurt, but leave it in there and bandage around it. DO NOT PULL THE OBJECT OUT!
  • With all open wounds, there’s a risk of infection, so wash your hands and use gloves (if you have any) to help prevent any infection passing between you both.

What you need to do – severe bleeding

Your priority is to stop the bleeding. Protect yourself by wearing gloves.

If the wound is covered by the casualty’s clothing, remove or cut the clothes to uncover the wound.

If there an object in the wound

If there’s an object in there, don’t pull it out, because it may be acting as a plug to reduce the bleeding. Instead, leave it in and apply pressure either side of it with a pad (such as a clean cloth) or fingers, until a sterile dressing is available.

If there’s no object in the wound

Follow the steps below for treating severe bleeding.

Step 1 of 2: Press it

Press it

  • Put direct pressure on the wound with your fingers, using a sterile dressing if possible, to stop blood escaping.
  • Sit or lie the person down.
  • Reassure them.

 

Step 2 of 2: Call 999 or 112 for medical help

Call 999

Waiting for help

  • Firmly wrap a bandage around the pad or dressing on top of the wound to control the bleeding. Make it firm enough to maintain pressure but not so tight that it restricts their circulation.
  •  Treat them for shock: lay them down with their head low and their legs raised and supported.
  • If blood shows through the pad or dressing, don’t remove it: apply a second dressing on top of the first one. If blood then seeps through both dressings, remove both of them and replace them with a fresh dressing. When changing dressings, make sure you keep pressure applied to where the bleeding is coming from.
  • if you can, support the injured area. For example, you can rest a leg on some cushions, or for an arm you can make a sling.
  • Keep checking the casualty’s breathing, pulse and level of response.
  • If they become unresponsive at any point, open their airway, check their breathing, and prepare to treat someone who has become unresponsive.
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CPR technique (first aid)

CPR is a lifesaving skill, we advise you to seek professional training but hopefully this information will help you should the need arise! 

CPR2

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a lifesaving technique useful in many emergencies, including heart attack or near drowning, in which someone’s breathing or heartbeat has stopped. 

 It’s far better to do something than to do nothing at all if you’re fearful that your knowledge or abilities aren’t 100 percent complete. Remember, the difference between your doing something and doing nothing could be someone’s life.

Here’s advice from the American Heart Association:

  • Untrained. If you’re not trained in CPR, then provide hands-only CPR. That means uninterrupted chest compressions of about 100 a minute until paramedics arrive (described in more detail below). You don’t need to try rescue breathing.
  • Trained and ready to go. If you’re well-trained and confident in your ability, begin with chest compressions instead of first checking the airway and doing rescue breathing. Start CPR with 30 chest compressions before checking the airway and giving rescue breaths.
  • Trained but rusty. If you’ve previously received CPR training but you’re not confident in your abilities, then just do chest compressions at a rate of about 100 a minute. (Details described below.)

The above advice applies to adults, children and infants needing CPR, but not newborns.

CPR can keep oxygenated blood flowing to the brain and other vital organs until more definitive medical treatment can restore a normal heart rhythm.

When the heart stops, the lack of oxygenated blood can cause brain damage in only a few minutes. A person may die within eight to 10 minutes.

To learn CPR properly, take an accredited first-aid training course, including CPR and how to use an automated external defibrillator (AED). If you are untrained and have immediate access to a phone, call 999 before beginning CPR. The dispatcher can instruct you in the proper procedures until help arrives.

Before you begin

Before starting CPR, check:

  • Is the person conscious or unconscious?
  • If the person appears unconscious, tap or shake his or her shoulder and ask loudly, “Are you OK?”
  • If the person doesn’t respond and two people are available, one should call 999 or the local emergency number and one should begin CPR. If you are alone and have immediate access to a telephone, call 999 before beginning CPR — unless you think the person has become unresponsive because of suffocation (such as from drowning). In this special case, begin CPR for one minute and then call 999 or the local emergency number.
  • If an AED is immediately available, deliver one shock if instructed by the device, then begin CPR.

Remember to spell C-A-B

The American Heart Association uses the acronym of CAB — compressions, airway, breathing — to help people remember the order to perform the steps of CPR.

Compressions: Restore blood circulation

  1. Put the person on his or her back on a firm surface.
  2. Kneel next to the person’s neck and shoulders.
  3. Place the heel of one hand over the center of the person’s chest, between the nipples. Place your other hand on top of the first hand. Keep your elbows straight and position your shoulders directly above your hands.
  4. Use your upper body weight (not just your arms) as you push straight down on (compress) the chest at least 2 inches (approximately 5 centimeters). Push hard at a rate of about 100 compressions a minute.
  5. If you haven’t been trained in CPR, continue chest compressions until there are signs of movement or until emergency medical personnel take over. If you have been trained in CPR, go on to checking the airway and rescue breathing.

Airway: Clear the airway

  1. If you’re trained in CPR and you’ve performed 30 chest compressions, open the person’s airway using the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver. Put your palm on the person’s forehead and gently tilt the head back. Then with the other hand, gently lift the chin forward to open the airway.
  2. Check for normal breathing, taking no more than five or 10 seconds. Look for chest motion, listen for normal breath sounds, and feel for the person’s breath on your cheek and ear. Gasping is not considered to be normal breathing. If the person isn’t breathing normally and you are trained in CPR, begin mouth-to-mouth breathing. If you believe the person is unconscious from a heart attack and you haven’t been trained in emergency procedures, skip mouth-to-mouth breathing and continue chest compressions.

Breathing: Breathe for the person

Rescue breathing can be mouth-to-mouth breathing or mouth-to-nose breathing if the mouth is seriously injured or can’t be opened.

  1. With the airway open (using the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver), pinch the nostrils shut for mouth-to-mouth breathing and cover the person’s mouth with yours, making a seal.
  2. Prepare to give two rescue breaths. Give the first rescue breath — lasting one second — and watch to see if the chest rises. If it does rise, give the second breath. If the chest doesn’t rise, repeat the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver and then give the second breath. Thirty chest compressions followed by two rescue breaths is considered one cycle.
  3. Resume chest compressions to restore circulation.
  4. If the person has not begun moving after five cycles (about two minutes) and an automated external defibrillator (AED) is available, apply it and follow the prompts. Administer one shock, then resume CPR — starting with chest compressions — for two more minutes before administering a second shock. If you’re not trained to use an AED, a 999 or other emergency medical operator may be able to guide you in its use. If an AED isn’t available, go to step 5 below.
  5. Continue CPR until there are signs of movement or emergency medical personnel take over.

To perform CPR on a child

 The procedure for giving CPR to a child age 1 through 8 is essentially the same as that for an adult. The differences are as follows:
  • If you’re alone, perform five cycles of compressions and breaths on the child — this should take about two minutes — before calling 999 or your local emergency number or using an AED.
  • Use only one hand to perform chest compressions.
  • Breathe more gently.
  • Use the same compression-breath rate as is used for adults: 30 compressions followed by two breaths. This is one cycle. Following the two breaths, immediately begin the next cycle of compressions and breaths.
  • After five cycles (about two minutes) of CPR, if there is no response and an AED is available, apply it and follow the prompts. Use pediatric pads if available, for children ages 1 through 8. If pediatric pads aren’t available, use adult pads. Do not use an AED for children younger than age 1. Administer one shock, then resume CPR — starting with chest compressions — for two more minutes before administering a second shock. If you’re not trained to use an AED, a 999 or other emergency medical operator may be able to guide you in its use.

Continue until the child moves or help arrives.

To perform CPR on a baby

 Most cardiac arrests in babies occur from lack of oxygen, such as from drowning or choking. If you know the baby has an airway obstruction, perform first aid for choking. If you don’t know why the baby isn’t breathing, perform CPR.

To begin, examine the situation. Stroke the baby and watch for a response, such as movement, but don’t shake the baby.

If there’s no response, follow the CAB procedures below and time the call for help as follows:

  • If you’re the only rescuer and CPR is needed, do CPR for two minutes — about five cycles — before calling 999 or your local emergency number.
  • If another person is available, have that person call for help immediately while you attend to the baby.

Compressions: Restore blood circulation

  1. Place the baby on his or her back on a firm, flat surface, such as a table. The floor or ground also will do.
  2. Imagine a horizontal line drawn between the baby’s nipples. Place two fingers of one hand just below this line, in the center of the chest.
  3. Gently compress the chest about 1.5 inches (about 4 centimeters).
  4. Count aloud as you pump in a fairly rapid rhythm. You should pump at a rate of 100 compressions a minute.

Airway: Clear the airway

  1. After 30 compressions, gently tip the head back by lifting the chin with one hand and pushing down on the forehead with the other hand.
  2. In no more than 10 seconds, put your ear near the baby’s mouth and check for breathing: Look for chest motion, listen for breath sounds, and feel for breath on your cheek and ear.

Breathing: Breathe for the baby

  1. Cover the baby’s mouth and nose with your mouth.
  2. Prepare to give two rescue breaths. Use the strength of your cheeks to deliver gentle puffs of air (instead of deep breaths from your lungs) to slowly breathe into the baby’s mouth one time, taking one second for the breath. Watch to see if the baby’s chest rises. If it does, give a second rescue breath. If the chest does not rise, repeat the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver and then give the second breath.
  3. If the baby’s chest still doesn’t rise, examine the mouth to make sure no foreign material is inside. If an object is seen, sweep it out with your finger. If the airway seems blocked, perform first aid for a choking baby.
  4. Give two breaths after every 30 chest compressions.
  5. Perform CPR for about two minutes before calling for help unless someone else can make the call while you attend to the baby.
  6. Continue CPR until you see signs of life or until medical personnel arrive.
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